2018: Interconnections between Syndemics, Stigmas and Sexual health among sexual and gender minorities: A qualitative formative research

Aim of the Project

To explain health inequalities among MSM and transgender women in India through a syndemic framework. Study implemented by The Humsafar Trust in Mumbai with support from PGIMER, Chandigarh and funded by The WellcomeTrust.



  1. To explore the presence of psychosocial health conditions (e.g., problematic alcohol use, depression) as well as resilience resources among MSM and transgender women.
  2. To understand the experiences of stigma and discrimination faced by MSM and hijras/transgender women.
  3. To understand the influence of intersectionality and stigmas on Syndemic conditions and sexual risk among MSM and transgender women.
  4. To understand social support as coping mechanism for syndemic condition among MSM and Transgender women.


Research Questions

To understand from the lived experiences of MSM and TG women:

  1. What Syndemic conditions are present among MSM and transgender women?
  2. How are Syndemic conditions experienced by MSM and transgender women? What roles do stigmas and intersectionality play in the production of Syndemic?
  3. How does the experience of Syndemic conditions influence vulnerability to HIV and sexual risk among MSM and transgender women?
  4. What resilience resources do MSM and transgender women have, and whether and how those resources buffer the effects of stigmas and Syndemic on sexual risk?


Study duration: One year

Current Status: To be initiated

social position

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